AMEN


AMEN
AMEN (Heb. אָמֵן; "it is true," "so be it," "may it become true"), word or formula used as confirmation, endorsement, or expression of hope and wish on hearing a blessing, prayer, curse, or oath. Originally an adjective ("true"; but see Isa. 65:16 for its use as a noun), it became an indeclinable interjection. As such it is found 30 times in the masoretic text of the Bible and an additional three times in the Septuagint (see Tob. 8:8 and 1 QS 1:20, 2:10, 18). It usually stands alone, but is followed by a more explicit prayer formula in I Kings 1:36 and Jeremiah 28:6. In the service of the Second Temple, "Amen" was the response to the songs chanted by the levites (Ps. 41:14; 72:19; 89:53; 106:48; Neh. 8:6; I Chron. 16:36; cf. however Tosef. Ber. 7:22). In the synagogue liturgy, "Amen" was the response to all prayers and blessings. In the vast synagogue of Alexandria the ḥazzan signaled with a flag from the central reading platform to the congregation when to respond "Amen" after blessings (Suk. 51b). It may be assumed that in Temple and talmudic times responding "Amen" was the main form of participation in the service, not only because congregations were unfamiliar with the prayer texts (cf. RH 34b) but because public worship mainly took the form that one spoke and the rest responded. The saying of "Amen" is equivalent to reciting the blessing itself, and such religious value has been attached to it, that it has been said to be superior to the benediction that occasioned the response (Ber. 53b; Maim., Yad, Berakhot 1:11). A person should not usually respond with "Amen" to a blessing he himself has recited, the only exception now being the third blessing of the Grace after Meals (Ber. 45a and Tos.). This prohibition may be a reaction to the Christian custom to conclude every prayer with "Amen." The early church borrowed the use of "Amen" together with most of the liturgy, and it is found in the New Testament 119 times, of which 52 are uses different from the Hebrew. In Islam, "Amen" is the response after reciting the first sura (Surat al-Fatiḥa) of the Koran. "Amen" is used as a response to blessings recited both privately and in the synagogue liturgy. The congregation also responds "Amen" after each of the three verses of the Priestly Blessing (Sot. 7:3, 39b). In some rites the response after each verse is Ken yehi raẓon ("Let this be (His) will"; cf. Sh. Ar., OḤ 127:2). After each paragraph of the Kaddish and after a number of other prayers, such as the Mi she-Berakh formulas in the Sabbath morning service, the reader invites the congregation to respond "Amen" by saying ve-imru Amen, or ve-nomar Amen ("and say Amen" or "let us say Amen"). Numerous rules are given concerning how "Amen" should be recited, e.g., with a strong, clear voice but not too loud; not too quick and not too slow. It describes various types of "Amen," such as "snatched," "mumbled," and "orphaned" (Ber. 47a). Other problems discussed in the Talmud are whether to respond to the blessing of a Samaritan or of a non-Jew (Ber. 8:7; Ber. 51b; TJ Ber. 8:1, 12d). The aggadah stresses the great religious value of responding "Amen": it prolongs life (Ber. 47a); the gates of Paradise will be opened to him who responds with all his might (Shab. 119b); his sins will be forgiven, any evil decree passed on him by God will be canceled (ibid.); and he will be spared from   Hell (Pseudo SEZ 20, ed. Friedmann (1904), 33:1; Yal. Isa. 429). The Talmud (Shab. 119b; Sanh. 111a) also offers a homiletical etymology of "Amen" by explaining it as made up of the initial letters of El Melekh Ne'eman ("God, faithful King"), a phrase by which the reading of the Shema is preceded when recited other than in congregational worship. However, in the older prayer orders (Amram, Saadiah, Vitry) the original "Amen" appears before the Shema. Even God Himself "nods" "Amen" to the blessing given to him by mortal man (Ber. 7a and Rashi). According to legend, two angels accompany each Jew on Friday evening to his home, where they either bless him for his receiving the Sabbath properly or curse him for neglecting it, and they confirm their curse or blessing with "Amen" (Shab. 119b). Any good wish offered should be answered by Amen, ken yehi raẓon, as can be inferred from an incident going back to Second Temple times (Ket. 66b). -In Music According to the Talmud (Ber. 47a; TJ Ber. 8:10), the "Amen" should be drawn out in pronunciation, an act which is said to prolong life (repeated in the Zohar, Shelaḥ Lekha, 162a). Since Eastern chant does not use extended single notes, this very old precept furnished a challenge to elaborate the "Amen" response with ornament and coloratura. The free evolution of an "Amen"-melisma is found in Christian chant as early as the Oxyrhynchos hymn (late third century), in some settings of the Gloria and the Credo in the Roman mass, and later in figural church music. As to Jewish chant, the Gemara already limited the length of the "Amen" pronunciation; therefore, prolonged melodies are restricted to the "Amen" after the Blessing of the Priests (Example 1) and to the solo-part of the precentor (Example 2). In 1696, Judah Leib Zelichover (Shirei amen Yehudah, fol. 13b) disapproved of the excessive lengthening of "Amen"-melodies by some of his fellow singers. The "Amen" of the congregation in general remains a simple repetition, a conclusion or short continuation of the precentor's melody. "Amen"-motives characteristic of a certain feast were derived from its specific musical modes and prayer tunes. In the 19th century synagogue, S. sulzer , Hirsch Weintraub, and others attempted an imitation of figural "Amen" composition, but without success. (Hanoch Avenary) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Blau, in: REJ, 31 (1895), 179–201; H. Graetz, in: MGWJ, 21 (1872), 481 ff.; H.W. Hogg, in: JQR, 9 (1896/97), 1 ff.; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 495 ff.; F. Heiler, Gebet (19212), 383, 442 ff.; D. de Sola Pool, Kaddish (1909); L. Jacobs, Faith (1968), 199f.; ET, 2 (1949), 46–50. MUSIC: JE, EJ, Adler, Prat Mus, 21, 249; Idelsohn, Melodien, 1 (1914); 4 (1923), 131 no. 26, 137 no. 32; H. Weintraub, Schire Beth Adonai (19012), 82–83 no. 96; J. Freudenthal, Final Amens and Shabat Shalom (1963); F. Piket, Eleven Amens for All Occasions (1960).

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • amen — amen …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • Amen — • One of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Amen     Amen      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • amen — [ amɛn ] interj. et n. m. inv. • XIIe; lat. ecclés., hébr. « oui, ainsi soit il » ♦ Mot par lequel se terminent les prières. « l assistant répond amen » (Chateaubriand). Loc. Dire, répondre amen à tout ce que dit, ce que fait qqn, l approuver… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Amen — [ˈaːmɛn] oder [aː meːn] (hebräisch אָמֵן āmén, altgriechisch ἀμήν amēn, arabisch ‏آمين‎, DMG āmīn) ist eine aus dem Alten Testament ins Neue Testament übernommene Akklamationsformel in der Liturgie. Später wurde es auch in den Islam… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Amen — [ a:mən], das; s, : dient als Bekräftigung besonders eines christlichen Gebets, eines Segens, einer Predigt. ☆ zu allem Ja und Amen sagen (ugs.): sich allem fügen, sich mit allem abfinden: sie hat keine eigene Meinung, sie sagt zu allem Ja und… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • amen — [ a:mɛn] <Interjektion>: dient dazu, ein christliches Gebet, einen Segen, eine Predigt o. Ä. abzuschließen und das darin Gesagte zu bekräftigen: in Ewigkeit, amen. * * * Amen 〈n. 14〉 1. Zustimmung der Gemeinde zu Rede, Segen, Gebet usw. 2.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • amen — amen; amen·or·rhea; amen·tia; amen·ti·form; amen·tum; amen·i·ty; amen·or·rhe·al; amen·or·rhe·ic; amen·or·rhoea; amen·or·rhoe·al; amen·or·rhoe·ic; …   English syllables

  • amen — Ptkl std. stil. (8. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus l. āmēn als Schlußformel des christlichen Gebets, dieses aus gr. amḗn, aus hebr. ʾāmēn, zu hebr. ʾāman stärken, bekräftigen . Ein Wort der Bekräftigung: so soll es sein! .    Ebenso nndl. amen, ne …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Amen — Amen: Amen  Аминь. Amen (группа)  американская панк/хардкор группа. Amen (альбом)  второй альбом группы Amen (1999). Amen Break  семпл из трека The Winstons «Amen, Brother». Amen  псевдоним гитариста музыкального… …   Википедия

  • Amen — A men (?; 277), interj., adv., & n. [L. amen, Gr. amh n, Heb. [=a]m[=e]n certainly, truly.] An expression used at the end of prayers, and meaning, So be it. At the end of a creed, it is a solemn asseveration of belief. When it introduces a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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